What is stress corrosion cracking and why does it occur. What causes stress corrosion cracking in pipelines. Structural failure due to scc is often sudden and unpredictable, occurring after as little as a few hours of exposure, or after months or even years of satisfactory service. A cyclical load is critical for crack initiation and growth. The detection of stress corrosion cracking in natural gas.
Scc occurs as a result of a combination between corrosion and tensile stress. Brown chemistrydepartment theamericanuniversity washington,d. Cheng has published over 115 journal articles dedicated to corrosion, pipeline engineering, and materials science. Stress corrosion cracking of pipelines cern document server. There are field data that indicate that with a decreasing stress ratio there is an increased propensity for cracking. The chosen model, takes into account uniform and localized corrosion. No matter how well these pipelines are designed, constructed and protected, once in place they are subjected to environmental abuse, external damage, coating disbondments, inherent mill. Hurley boise state university 1910 university drive boise, idaho 837252075 c.
Use features like bookmarks, note taking and highlighting while reading stress corrosion cracking of pipelines wiley. The final chapter is dedicated to effective management and mitigation of pipeline stress corrosion cracking. Stresscorrosion cracking experiments can be categorized as. Frank cheng schulich school of engineering university of calgary. Stress corrosion cracking of pipelines wiley series in. Stress corrosion cracking of pipelines researchgate. Stress corrosion cracking scc is a progressive fracture mechanism in metals that is a result of the simultaneous interaction of a corrodent and a sustained tensile stress. Transgranular stress corrosion cracking of 304l stainless steel pipe clamps in direct use geothermal water heating applications m. Studies of circumferential stress corrosion cracking of.
Failure probability assessment for pipelines under the. When they fail due to stress corrosion cracking, they can wreak environmental havoc. Ctlstress corrosion cracking of a stainless steel pipeline. Since the first discovery of stress corrosion cracking scc on the exterior surface of a buried high.
Frank cheng, richard norsworthy, pipeline coatings, nace. Explains why pipeline stress corrosion cracking happens and how it can be. Definitions are given of a number of terms relating to crack propagation caused by the conjoint action of stress and corrosion and related phenomena. Tensile stresses may be directly applied residual, and the problem is often very complex. Cheng offers strate gies for managing stress corrosion cracking by preventing, detecting, and monitoring to achieve the goal of zero failuresno failuresso that, indeed, zero means zero, and no means no, ensuring reliability of the pipeline. Stress corrosion cracking of pipelines electrochemistry.
Stress corrosion cracking of brittle fracture surface, but it may also occur in high toughness materials. Stress corrosion cracking scc of pipelines, from the soil side, was first recognised over three decades ago j and has now been experienced in several countries throughout the world. Stress corrosion cracking of pipelines wiley series in corrosion kindle edition by cheng, y. Energy dispersive spectroscopy eds was used to analyze the surface scale and crack surface.
Stress corrosion cracking of gas pipelines 3 minute 2014 thesis finalist. The stress corrosion cracking of the steel was dominated by an anodic dissolution mechanism, while the effect of hydrogen was negligible. Explains why pipeline stress corrosion cracking happens and how it can be prevented pipelines sit at the heart of the global economy. Olson boise state university 1910 university drive boise, idaho 837252075 l. Frank, 1969 stress corrosion cracking of pipelines y. Definition of stress corrosion cracking form of corrosion susceptible material specific corrosive medium tensile stress.
Stress corrosion cracking in the necessary condition is to have tensile strength. It can lead to unexpected sudden failure of normally ductile metal alloys subjected to a tensile stress, especially at elevated temperature. An overview of past and proposed ng18 programs designed to address this objective is given in figure 1 in the introduction section, where it can be seen that the research has. Scc results from the formation of cracks due to various factors in combination with the environment surrounding the pipeline that together. Frank cheng, stress corrosion cracking of pipelines, john wiley, hoboken, nj, 20. Effect of stress on corrosion at crack tip on pipeline steel in a nearneutral ph. This book provides the reader with a history of generic pipeline coating types, technical information about testing, application and use. Stress corrosion cracking by krittin rattakham duration. Explains why pipeline stress corrosion cracking happens and how it can be prevented pipelines sit at the heart of the gl. The detection of stress corrosion cracking in natural gas pipelines using electromagnetic acoustic transducers austin p. These differences reflect the different passivity of the steel in the environments involved with the two forms of cracking. Tests on statically loaded smooth samples tests on statically loaded precracked samples tests using slowly straining samples more detailed information on these tests can be found in chapter 17, evaluation of stress corrosion cracking, in this book, and in ref 1. Pdf stress corrosion cracking of pipelines alexander. The applied load stress increased the corrosion rate at the crack tip, contributing to crack propagation.
Semantic scholar extracted view of stress corrosion cracking of pipelines by y. Weixing chen pipeline operation strategies for mitigating the risk of failures caused by stress corrosion cracking and corrosion fatigue. The great majority of those failures have involved intergranular cracking, but more recently instances of transgranular cracking have been observed. In nine chapters, he leads the reader through the science of stress corrosion cracking, as it is currently understood at an atomistic level, into discussions of soil environments and engineering aspects of constructing and maintaining welded steel pipelines, with the complexities that weld zones entail. Stress corrosion cracking of pipelines begins with a brief introduction and then explores general principals of stress corrosion cracking, including two detailed case studies of pipeline failure. Eiber, stress corrosion cracking on gas transmission pipelines. The objective of the stresscorrosion cracking scc phase of the ng18 program is to develop an understanding of the causes of external scc and methods of controlling it on new and existing gas transmission pipelines. Stress corrosion cracking scc is cracking induced by the combined influence of tensile stress and corrosive environments.
A study on stress corrosion cracking of x70 pipeline steel. The sides of intergranular stress corrosion cracks show little evidence of lateral corrosion, whereas transgranular cracks are characterized by appreciable lateral corrosion of the crack walls, as is apparent from fig. The original 1997 cepa stress corrosion cracking recommended practices hereafter referred to as the practices were prepared and made public by cepa in response to a the national energy board of canadas public inquiry mh295 into the problem of stress corrosion cracking scc in oil and gas pipelines. The role of hydrogen in the mechanism of stress corrosion cracking has been known since the 1970s so that preventative measures have since been introduced.
Stress corrosion cracking in polyethylene coatings of steel pipes todays approach to stress corrosion cracking in polyethylene coatings of steel pipes for standard applications in water and gas distribution systems merely considers the coating types featuring the low peeling resistance of the early editions of din 30670, i. Their geometry is such that if they grow to appropriate lengths they may reach a critical size that results in a transition from the relatively slow crack growth rates associated with stress corrosion to. One challenge is that local structures in a material can make it more vulnerable to both fracture and chemical attack. The sensitized structure is an indication of the materials susceptibility to intergranular corrosion andor cracking. There is a free corrosion condition below the coating that results in an environment with a ph around 5 to 7.
Environmentally assisted cracking, magnesium alloys, presentations, stress corrosion cracking tagged with. Thus, the hardness and tensile tests were worked out to characterize the mechanical properties of pipelines material. United states although stresscorrosion cracking scc is thought to be responsible for a relatively small percentage of pipeline failures each year, it continues to be a safety concern to pipeline operators and government regulatory agencies, and it must be addressed in integrity management plans. Studies of circumferential stress corrosion cracking of pipelines. A high chlorine peak was observed in both locations indicating high chloride levels.
Explains why pipeline stress corrosion cracking happens and how it can be prevented. Albright university of tennessee knoxville this thesis is brought to you for free and open access by the graduate school at trace. Stress corrosion cracking of pipelines y frank cheng. L51803 failure criterion for stresscorrosion cracking in. Corrosionpedia what is stress corrosion cracking scc. Stress corrosion cracking of pipelines semantic scholar. Structural failure due to scc can be very unpredictablefailure could occur after as little as a few hours of exposure, or the equipment could continue to function normally for. Stress corrosion cracking of polyethylene practical. Stress corrosion cracking scc stress corrosion cracking is to bear the stress of the alloy in the corrosive environment because of strong expansion of the alternate failure pattern of a generic term.
Stress corrosion cracking scc is a progressive fracturing that occurs in metals as a result of the combined influence of tensile stress and a corrosive environment. Although hydrogeninduced cracking and stress corrosion cracking are similar phenomena, both types of damage are usually described and treated separately. Stress corrosion cracking of highstrength pipeline steels the final chapter is dedicated to effective management and mitigation of pipeline stress corrosion cracking. Stress corrosion cracking of pipelines wiley online books. Mechanisms of stresscorrosion cracking asm international. This book skillfully explains the fundamental science and. Corrosion is related to the susceptibility of the material to the environment, while stresses may be residual, external or. Frank cheng, 9781118022672, available at book depository with free delivery worldwide. Stress corrosion cracks propagate over a range of velocities from about 103 to 10 mmh, depending upon the combination of alloy and environment involved. Hydrogen diffusion control during stress corrosion cracking of magnesium alloy az31b in chloride solutions abstract.
When they are in good working order, they deliver fuel to meet. Stress corrosion cracking scc is a type of environmentallyassisted cracking eac, or the formation of cracks caused by various factors combined with the environment surrounding the pipeline. Business conference on onshore pipelines, berlin, 1997 10. Damage due to hydrogen embrittlement and stress corrosion. In this work, a numerical method was developed, by a reliability mechanical coupling, in order to define the reliability index and probability of failure evolutions for pipelines under corrosion effect. National academy of sciences committee for pipeline transportation of diluted bitumen. Analysis of electrochemical hydrogen permeation through x65 pipeline steel and its implications on pipeline stress corrosion cracking. Stress corrosion cracking of gas pipelines 3 minute 2014. Stress corrosion cracking direct assessment sccda is a structured process that is intended to assist pipeline companies in assessing the extent of stress corrosion cracking scc on a section of buried pipeline and thus contribute to their efforts to improve safety by reducing the impact of external scc on pipeline integrity.
Failures due to stresscorrosion cracking scc generally involve several adjacent, parallel, deep cracks that because of their proximity coalesce to form long flaws, which can cause ruptures. Recent gas pipeline rupture due to stress corrosion cracking. The author explains how and why pipelines fall prey to stress corrosion cracking and then offers tested and proven strategies for preventing, detecting, and monitoring it in order to prevent pipeline failure. We have completed the public inquiry into stress corrosion cracking on canadian oil and gas pipelines in accordance with the boards terms of reference of 6 september 1995. External stress corrosion cracking on pipelines shuler cox materials engineering unit. Stress corrosion cracking scc is the growth of crack formation in a corrosive environment. Download it once and read it on your kindle device, pc, phones or tablets. Recent studies indicate that such multiple flaws cause a local increase in compliance as compared to a single crack that represents the largest of the cracks involved. Frank chengs 195 research works with 5148 citations and 10921 reads.
Stresscorrosion cracking scc is a term used to describe service failures in engineering materials that occur by slow, environmentally induced crack propagation. The deposit of corrosion products at the crack tip could protect somewhat from further corrosion. Scc is highly chemically specific in that certain alloys are likely to undergo scc only when exposed to a small number of chemical environments. Cheng, synergistic effects of hydrogen and stress on corrosion of x100 pipeline steel in a nearneutral ph solution, j. Transgranular stress corrosion cracking of 304l stainless. Frank chengs research works the university of calgary.
Scc in pipelines is a type of environmentally assisted cracking. Scc can affect materials in a number of ways, from dry cracking to catastrophic failure. Stress corrosion cracking in pipelines sciencedirect. Throughout the book, the author develops a number of theoretical models and concepts based on advanced microscopic electrochemical measurements to help readers better understand the occurrence of stress corrosion cracking. Frank cheng, phd, is professor and canada research chair in pipeline engineering at the university of calgary. When they are in good working order, they deliver fuel to meet the evergrowing demand for energy around the world.525 1575 425 280 306 521 625 617 1338 1336 966 650 1585 1286 408 197 767 295 1247 1288 707 725 173 612 17 19 1171 1012 256 508 156 434 816 1463 368 241 456 362 1201 1116 159 213 28